In my first few weeks at University studying AI the homework was to write an essay with the title "what is artificial intelligence"? I quickly found that scientists disagree about what exactly artificial intelligence is.
One of the reasons for disagreement is that potential definitions involve saying what we mean by "intelligence" and that usually involves some comparison with a benchmark. But the benchmark keeps changing as technology advances and as we understand more about human intelligence. So it is very difficult to say that artificial intelligence is a machine with a list of particular functionalities.
My preferred solution is to say that artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science where we try to use computers to understand human intelligence. There are many types of human intelligence (cultural intelligence, perception, hand eye coordination, emotional intelligence, verbal reasoning, ...) and so there are likely to be lots of types of artificial intelligence.
At present there is lots of discussion by governments, enterprises and institutions about potential regulation of the use and development of AI technologies. Because there is no simple definition of AI it means that it is not appropriate to have a blanket regulation for AI technologies. Any attempt to do so would lead to uncertaintly because of the difficulty of defining AI.
The scope of AI is disputed: as machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered as requiring "intelligence" are often removed from the definition, a phenomenon known as the AI effect, leading to the quip, "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet." For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from "artificial intelligence", having become a routine technology